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How Skin pH Affects the Acid Mantle and Barrier Function

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Respect and protect your skin’s optimal pH to help restore healthy barrier functions.

The skin is an amazing organ, and one most people take for granted as its protective layers are invisible to the naked eye.

Take, for example, the skin acid mantle – it’s a naturally-occurring acidic layer that fulfils multiple rolesR1 :

  • Maintains the skin’s moisture levels
  • Supports the structural integrity of the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the epidermis)
  • Forms the first line of defence against bacteria
  • Assists in the activation of ceramide metabolism
  • Modulates serine protease activity* relating to the formation of the cornified cell envelope** (a tough, insoluble structure which supports the skin barrier)

* serine proteases are enzymes that play a role in the renewal or regeneration of skin cells

 

In healthy skin, pH levels range from pH4-6, with tests indicating that pH5 or lower allows optimal barrier function
R2. In eczema-prone skin, however, pH levels are elevated; this leads to increased protease activity and activation of the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) which causes:R3, R4, R5, R6:

  • Reduced synthesis of ceramides and free fatty acids, which are essential lipids
  • Inhibited secretion of lamellar bodies which are integral to skin structure
  • Defects in the acidic antimicrobial barrier
  • Increased inflammation and itching
Skin-pH-Acid-Mantle-2

Ultimately, elevated skin pH leads directly to skin barrier defects; maintaining an optimal skin pH, therefore, is a significant factor in managing eczema-prone skinR7.

Established research show that restoring the skin’s pH level to its naturally acidic state allows its barrier functions to resume, effectively reversing the chain reaction that leads to inflammation and itching that are hallmarks of eczema-prone skinR8. This includes supporting the skin’s ability to produce ceramides, the dominant component in the skins’ physiological lipids.

Ceramides, which form a 3:1:1 ratio with cholesterol and free fatty acidsR9, can also be supplemented topically.R10 This same ratio is employed in patent-pending Ceradan® Advanced Barrier Cream, a ceramide-dominant emollient cream designed to replenish essential lipids. With zinc lactobionic acid to normalise the skin’s pH level to its normal acidic state of pH4-6, it also helps to inhibit serine protease activity in a stable, low pH formula that is suitably mild to eliminate stinging upon application.

Tests show that ceramide-dominant emollient cream is effective in restoring barrier function, reducing the severity of eczema-related symptoms. After only three weeks of twice daily application, results included R13, R14:

  • Significant reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL)
  • Reduction in the severity of itching
  • Progressive improvement in the integrity of the stratum corneum
  • Improved barrier function

These results, which contributed to significantly improved quality of life for participants, were measured using both patient self-assessment tests and clinical observationsR15. Most importantly, they offer reassurance that symptoms of eczema can be managed with appropriate care, leading to reduced dependence on steroid-based treatment, a common cause for concern among parents of young children who suffer from eczema-prone skin.

Restoring the pH level to its naturally acidic state allows the skin barrier functions to resume

For more information on skin pH and the acid mantle in relation to managing eczema-prone skin, speak to your doctor for advice.

References:
1. Lee H-J et al. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2014;6(4):276-287. 2. Panther DJ, et al. J Clin Med 2015;5:970-978.
2. Lambers H et al. Natural skin surface pH is on average below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2006 Oct;28(5):359-70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18489300
3. Danby SG, Cork MJ. pH in Atopic Dermatitis. pH of the Skin: Issues and Challenges. 2018. Basel Karger, vol 54, pp95-107.
4. Ali SM, Yosipovitch G. Skin pH: from basic science to basic skin care. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013 May;93(3):261-7.
5. Lee HJ, Lee SH. Epidermal permeability barrier defects and barrier repair therapy in atopic dermatitis. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2014 Jul;6(4):276-87
6. Alan Cowan, Gil Yosipovitch. How Deep Should We Scratch? Pharmacology of Itch. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer, 2015. Volume 226. pg 99.
7. Monika Hildegard Schmid-Wendtner, The pH of the Skin Surface and Its Impact on the Barrier Function. Skin pharmacology and physiology 19(6):296-302 · February 2006
8. Hachem JP et al. “Sustained serine proteases activity by prolonged increase in pH leads to degradation of lipid processing enzymes and profound alterations of barrier function and stratum corneum integrity.” J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Sep;125(3):510-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16117792
9. Vávrová K., Kováčik A., Opálka L. Ceramides in the Skin Barrier, Eur. Pharm. J. 2017, 64 (2): 28-35.
10. Mao-Qiang et al (1993a). Optimization of Physiological Lipid Mixtures for Barrier Repair. The Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. Vol. 106, No. 5 May 1996
11. [data on file]
12. [data on file]
13. Chamlin SL et al. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:198-208.
14. Kircik LH et al. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2011;4(3):34-40
15. Koh MJ et al. Comparison of the Simple Patient-Centric Atopic Dermatitis Scoring System PEST with SCORAD in Young Children Using a Ceramide Dominant Therapeutic Moisturizer. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) (2017) 7:383–393, DOI 10.1007/s13555-017-0186-1

Testimonies

Soothing gel can help calm the skin.

Lennix is super sensitive to mosquito bites not only does it swells up to the size of golf balls but when he scratches it ….
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Joanne

Singapore

Ceradan Hydra moisturiser is able to maintain the hydrated.

Having eczema since I was 2 weeks old at birth, I’ve been on the search for products to keep the eczema under control ….
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Cheryl

Singapore

It’s soap free and safe for all skin types

Honestly though, this 3 are my most used products from @ceradan311sg ? I love using the wash on Shayera & Zayne as ….
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Jane

Singapore

It’s a very gentle and baby-safe product.

We were introduced to Ceradan Skin Barrier Repair Cream by Marc’s paediatric when he started to develop a neck rash from all the sweating, milk and drool ….
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Cheryl

Singapore

It is hypoallergenic and 100% safe for newborn.

My baby is almost 2 months old, for the past weeks, I’ve been overwhelmed by frequent diaper changing and feeding my baby day and night ….
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Adeline

Singapore

Ceramoz will make your life better!

Recommended by a pediatric dermatologist, my 4 YO girl has been using the Ceramoz for more than 2 years now. It is truly the best of both worlds ….
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Alfred

Singapore
  • Lennix is super sensitive to mosquito bites not only does it swells up to the size of golf balls but when he scratches it he gets a bacterial skin infection which either lands him in hospital for IV antibiotics or heavy doses of oral antibiotics.

    So now whenever he gets bitten we immediately apply antiseptic solution and then put a bandaid on it so he wouldn’t be able to scratch.

    However the area around the bite becomes very dry and scabby possibly due to lack of air because we leave the bandaid on until the bite heals? We have been using @ceradan311sg soothing gel to help calm the skin so scratching is minimised to prevent further damage and it’s been working great! We ❤️ it!

  • Having eczema since I was 2 weeks old at birth, I’ve been on the search for products to keep the eczema under control. One thing I found useful before attending this session is that I “drink” moisturisers by the bottle and only came to know Ceradan since Marc was born. What I didn’t know was Ceradan is great for all ages, all skin types, especially dry, sensitive and eczema ones.

    The texture of the Ceradan Hydra moisturiser is very light yet is able to maintain the hydrated feeling for quite a while. And understanding from Dr Lynn that the key issue with eczema skin is to build up the skin’s barrier to minimise inflammation and infection, using a moisturiser with 3:1:1 ceramide dominant ratio is essential.

  • Honestly though, this 3 are my most used products from @ceradan311sg ? I love using the wash on Shayera & Zayne as it puts my mind at ease knowing that it’s soap free and safe for all skin types. As for the diaper cream, I use it on the kids even when there’s no rash to ensure that they’re protected. I used it on myself the other day when I had a minor rash on my hand and it helped! As for Ceramoz, it’s part mosquito repellent and part moisturiser! It’s the kiddos must have when they go over to my in-laws place which is a landed space, so you know how mosquitos love to party inside.?

  • We were introduced to Ceradan Skin Barrier Repair Cream by Marc’s paediatric when he started to develop a neck rash from all the sweating, milk and drool in between his neck folds. And later, when Marc started on his helmet therapy, the orthopaedic suggested using Ceradan Body Wash to help minimise any possibility of heat rashes and keep his skin moisturised.

    Having used Ceradan products on Marc for quite a while now, we do find that it’s a very gentle and baby-safe product. Upon using the Ceradan Skin Barrier Repair Cream, his neck rash was under control very quickly and it’s been very effective even for myself when I have eczema flare ups. Ceradan Regimen, which consists of Ceradan Skin Barrier Repair Cream and Ceradan Body Wash, is suitable for children as young as newborns and it has demonstrated clinically-proven efficacy in a study conducted by KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital and National Skin Centre in Singapore to prevent 1 in 2 eczema flares in Singapore children.

    Since Marc loves swimming, and the chlorine in the water is very drying for the skin, I highly recommend Ceradan Body Wash to cleanse and maintain his gentle baby skin as hydrated as possible.

  • My baby is almost 2 months old, for the past weeks, I’ve been overwhelmed by frequent diaper changing and feeding my baby day and night. ?‍♀️?? Diaper rash is also every mum’s nightmare so choosing the right diaper cream is so important. Ceradan’s diaper cream is clinically proven and also recommended by KK Children & Women’s Hospital.

    It is hypoallergenic and 100% safe for newborn.

    I’m thankful to be able to try out this diaper cream for my baby with its unique triple protective actions◾Zinc oxide to seal out wetness ◾Octenidine to control yeast overgrowth ◾Contains 3:1:1 ratio of ceramic, cholesterol and free fatty acids to repair skin barrier.

    Thanks for keeping my baby’s skin rash-free!

    Ceradan is available at Watsons, Guardian and Unity stores.

  • Recommended by a pediatric dermatologist, my 4 YO girl has been using the Ceramoz for more than 2 years now. It is truly the best of both worlds, being able to moisturise and protect against mosquito bites at the same time!

    One big problem we had to deal with when my girl started childcare was mosquitoes ?. Doesn’t help when she had eczema and very sensitive skin. One bite on her and the bitten site would swell and become inflamed. Mosquito patches don’t work at all, and kid-friendly insect repellents either don’t work so well, or are too “spicy” – imagine the whines when she accidentally rubs her eyes after applying the repellent. When we were initially introduced to Ceramoz, we were a bit doubtful but later glad to learn that my girl don’t get bitten by mosquitoes that often anymore! (Truth he told, she only gets bitten when she forgets to apply it after her shower in childcare). It has proved its use so much that I use it now even during her non school days, 2+ years and counting!

    If you have a school-going child with eczema conditions, delicate skin, or is simply a mosquito magnet, Ceramoz will make your life better!